Of Ancient Mataram Kingdom

Prambanan temple relics of of ancient Mataram kingdom

Of Ancient Mataram Kingdom.


In central Java, around the 8th century, the development of an Ancient Mataram Kingdom. Central command called Bhumi Ancient Mataram Mataram located in the interior of central Java. The county has many rivers such mountains and Bogowanto, Progo River, and Bengawan Solo. Ancient Mataram Kingdom central rule could also moved to East Java. Transfer from the Ancient Mataram Kingdom central Java to East Java due to two things.

1. During the 7th century until the 9th, the attacks happen from Sriwijawa the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. Substantially influence the Sriwijaya Kingdom Ancient Mataram cause increasingly pushed to the eastern region.
2. The onset of the eruption of Mount Merapi which is considered as a sign of pralaya or destruction of the world. Then, put the government in central Java deemed no longer fit to be inhabited.

Sanjaya Dynasty
Canggal inscription found on the Temple Mount Wukir page gives a fairly clear picture of the political life of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. The inscription reads in Saka 654 or 732, the Pallava capital letters using Sanskrit. Ancient Mataram Kingdom was founded by King Sanna. The king was succeeded by his nephew Sanna Sanjaya. The reign of Sanjaya Sanna and we can know from the description of the book Carita Parahyangan. In another inscription, the inscription Balitung, considered the founder of King Sanjaya Sanjaya dynasty, rulers of Ancient Mataram.
Sanjaya was crowned as the king in the year 717 with the title of the Queen Sanjaya Rakai Mataram. Sanjaya
position very strong and successful welfare of the people of Ancient Mataram Kingdom. Sanjaya spread the influence of Hinduism in Java. This is achieved by inviting Hindu priests to teach in the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. King Sanjaya also began construction of the temple-shaped shrine temple. King Sanjaya account after death, ancient Mataram kingdom ruled by his son Rakai Panangkaran.
King Rakai Panangkaran established many temples, such Sewu, and Plaosan Kalasan. From the evidence, it is known that King Rakai Panangkaran Buddhists. Ancient Mataram king after Rakai Panangkaran respectively Warak and Rakai Rakai Garung. The next king of ancient Mataram Pikatan Rakai. Competition with Syilendra Dynasty who was ordered by King Samaratungga considered blocking his goal to become the sole ruler of Java.

In the 9th century occurred through the merger of the two dynastic political marriage between Rakai Pikatan of families with Pramodawardhani Sanjaya (Samaratungga princess), from the family dynasty. However, the marriage of Rakai Pikatan Pramodawardhani not running smoothly. After Samaratungga death, power shifted to Balaputradewa which is half brother of Pramodawardhani. According to some inscriptions, such as the inscription Ratu Boko (856), indicating the occurrence of civil war between the Rakai Pikatan with Balaputradewa.
Balaputradewa defeat and fled to Swarnadwipa (Sumatra). He then ruled as king, replace his grandfather in the kingdom of Srivijaya. It can be diketahu from Nalanda inscription (India), which states that King Deewapaladewa of Bengal presented a plot of land to the King Balaputradewa of Swarnadwipa to membagun a monastery. 
After Balaputradewa defeated, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom territory became more knowledgeable towards the south (now yogyakarta). This area is the area formerly Sailendra dynasty. Rakai Pikatan Sanjaya dynasty to it that people can live in harmony and Syailndra. At this time, built the temple-shaped shrine, like Prambanan Temple. According to the inscription Siwagraha, Rakai Pikatan and the kings of Old Mataram next still follow the Hindu religion Shiva.
Based on the inscription Balitung, after Rakai Pikatan death, ancient Mataram kingdom ruled by the Rakai Kayuwangi assisted by an advisory board that also jd executive government. Board consisting of five led by a governor who is very important Mahapatih
its role. The next king of Mataram Watuhumalang Rakai. Ancient Mataram king was known then Balitung Dyah Sri Maharaja Rakai who holds Watukura Dyah Balitung Dharmodaya Raja Maha Dambhu is famous sngat Ancient Mataram. King Balitung successfully reunite ancient Mataram kingdom from the threat of schism.
His reign, King Balitung refine the governance structure by adding the composition hierarchy. Subordinate king of Mataram consists of three key officials, namely Rakryan I Hino as the king's right hand, accompanied by two other officers. Rakryan I Halu, and Rakryan I Sirikan The three officials into a legacy that continues to be used by subsequent Hindu kingdoms, such as the Kingdom of Singasari and Majapahit.
In addition to the new governance structure, also wrote the inscription King Balitung Balitung. Inscriptions also known as stele inscriptions Mantyasih This is the first in the Ancient Mataram Kingdom government pedigree that includes Sanjaya Dynasty in Ancient Mataram Kingdom. After King Balitung died in 910, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was experiencing three kings reign before eventually moving to the center of the kingdom East Java. Sri Maharaja Daksa, who in the reign of King Balitung served Rakryan i Hino, no longer ruled the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. His successor, Sri Maharaja Tulodhong also suffered a similar fate.  
Under the leadership of Sri Maharaja Rakai Wawa. Ancient Mataram Kingdom chaotic from the inside, which makes chaotic capital. Meanwhile, the economic and political power of Sriwijaya increasingly urgent position Mataram in Java. At that time, the region of ancient Mataram the kingdom was hit by the catastrophic eruption of Mount Merapi, which is very harmful to the kingdom capital. The whole problem can not be solved by the Rakai Wawa. He died suddenly. His position was later replaced by the Mpu Sindok the time it became Rakryan i Hino.

Dynasty Syailendra
Syailendra Dynasty authorities
in the area Begelan and Yogyakarta in the mid-8th century. Some historical sources about what works Syailendra Dynasty found, among other inscriptions Kalasan, Kelurak, Ratu Boko, and Nalanda. Kalasan inscriptions (778), mentions the name of Rakai Panangkaran ordered by King Vishnu, Syailendra Dynasty ruler, to erect a building sacred to the goddess Tara and a monastery for the ministers. Rural Rakai Panangkaran then give Kalasan to Sanggha Buddha. Boko inscriptions (856), mentions King Balaputradewa lost the civil war against his brother, that Pramodhawardani. Then, he fled to the Kingdom of Sriwijaya. Nalanda inscription (860), mentions King Balaputradewa origin. Balaputradewa mentioned that the King is the son of King Samaratungga and granddaughter of King Indra.
In the 8th century, the Sanjaya Dynasty who ruled Ancient Kingdom of  Mataram start pressured by the Sailendra dynasty. That we know from an inscription stating that the Rakai Kalasan Panangkaran Sanjaya family ruled by King Vishnu to establish Kalasan, a Buddhist temple. Sailendra dynasty emerged in the history of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom is no more than a century. The influence of the the kingdom of Srivijaya dynasty dynasty is also getting stronger as King Indra implementing strategic political marriage. King Indra to marry his son Samaratungga with one daughter of the King of Srivijaya.
Substitute King Indra is King Samaratungga. During his rule, built Borobudur Temple. However, before the temple was completed, King Samaratungga died in a civil war. Balaputradewa then fled to the kingdom of Srivijaya and became king there.

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